Object-oriented programming is a program concept that works according to the principle that objects are the most important part of your program. It allows users to create the objects they want and then create methods to handle these objects. Manipulating these objects to obtain results is an object-oriented programming object.
Object-oriented programming, popularly known as OOP, is used in a modern programming language, such as Java
The basic concepts of OOPS are
The class is a group of similar subjects. It is only a logical component, not a physical unit. For example, if you had a class called “expensive cars,” you could have items like Mercedes, BMW, Toyota, etc. Their properties (data) can be the price or the speed of these cars. While the methods can be implemented with these cars, they are driving, reversing, braking, etc.
The object can be defined as an instance of a class, but there can be more than one instance in the program. The object contains data and a function that acts on the data. For example a chair, bicycle, marker, pen, table, car, etc.
Inheritance is the concept of an OOPS in which an object acquires the properties and behaviour of the main object. Create a relationship between parents and a child between two classes. It offers robust and natural mechanisms for the organization and structure of any software.
Polymorphism refers to the ability of a variable, object or function to assume multiple forms. For example, in English, the verb “home” has a different meaning if you use it with “laptop”, “foot race” and “business”. Here we understand the meaning of “running” based on other words along with it. The same applies to polymorphism.
The extract is a fact that presents essential characteristics without including background details. This is a technique to create a new type of data that is appropriate for a given application. For example, when driving a car, you do not have to worry about internal work. Here you only need to take care of parts like the steering wheel, tools, gas, etc.
Encapsulation is an OOP technique to wrap data and codes. In this OOPS concept, class variables are always hidden from other classes. You can only access using the methods of your current class. For example, in school, a student cannot exist without a class.
The association is the relationship between two objects. Determine the diversity of objects. In this concept of OOP, all objects have their own life cycle and are not the owner. For example, many students can associate with a teacher, while a student can also connect with more teachers.
In this technique, all objects have a separate life cycle. However, the property is such that the child object cannot belong to another higher object. For example, consider the class/subject and the teacher’s section. Here, an individual teacher cannot belong to more departments, but even if we eliminate the department, the subject will never be destroyed.
A composition is a specialized form of association. It is also called a “death” relationship. Secondary objects do not have their own life cycle, so all secondary objects that are automatically deleted will be deleted in the main object. For this, we take the example of the house and the rooms. Each house has more rooms. A room cannot be part of two different houses. So if you remove a room from the house, it will also be deleted.
Advantages of OOPS:
- OOP offers a simple understanding and a clear modular structure of the programs.
- Objects created for object-oriented applications can be reused in other programs. This saves considerable development costs.
- Large programs are difficult to write, but if the development and design team follows the OOPS concept, they can plan better with fewer disadvantages.
- It also strengthens the modularity of the program since each object exists independently.